Sicilian Defense is the most popular and common reply to 1.e4. Both players need to prepare for Sicilian defense because of its dynamic and attacking nature.

While the Black’s main aim is to find a counter-attack and try to get a better position, White also needs deep preparation in Sicilian defense to achieve victory. Statistically, White is positioned at an advantage and has slightly more chances of winning than the Black.

Variations of Sicilian Defense

Sicilian defense has several variations, and let’s discuss four of the main variations for this strategy.

Najdorf Variation

Sicilian Defense - Najdorf Variation

Najdorf is the most famous opening in the Sicilian defense. The Najdorf Variation of the Sicilian Defence is one of the most popular, respected, and deeply studied of all chess openings. Modern Chess Openings calls it the “Cadillac” or “Rolls Royce” of chess openings.

The opening is named after the Polish-Argentine Grandmaster Miguel Najdorf, although he was not the first strong player to play the variation. Later Bobby Fischer and Garry Kasparov, and recently Maxime Vachier Lagrave follow Najdorf Variation.

Dragon Variation

Sicilian Dragon Variation

The Sicilian Dragon is one of the lines of the Sicilian Defence for Black. The Sicilian Dragon is an excellent Defense because Black prevents White from playing d4 and gaining a strong pawn center.

In Dragon, black’s main aim is to develop the bishop through g7 and start an attack on the queenside. However, a Dragon is not an excellent opening for beginners. Sicilian Dragon allows players to get a very double-edged position.

In general, White has an advantage from the beginning getting to go first, and that can leave Black’s focus in the opening first being to equalize and leaving him taking up a more passive setup. The Sicilian Dragon aims to get a more complicated position that likely offers Black more chances to push for a win, with the understanding that his opponent has some of those same chances.

That is the most significant advantage of playing it over another opening. If you are in a situation you need to win the game, it could be an option for you. And on that same note—of it being more tactical and aggressive—that is an advantage for people who prefer those types of games over the slower, more positional games.

In recent theory, white gets a very advantageous position in Dragon. One of the main advantages are:

  1. It’s very sharp, so there are good chances to win.
  2. In a way, it is very close to a system, as in most lines, you’ll play very similar moves and setups (g6-Bg7-0-0-Nc6). Therefore, finding the major moves and ideas is not very hard when you study it or start playing it.

On the other hand, it is a risky defense, particularly in the mainline where White castles long, develops the f1-bishop to c4, and then goes for the throat with h4 and h5. Also, this defense has been explored a lot at the top level, so deep preparation is needed. Because of this, now top players are not playing dragon variation.

Richter Rauzer Variation

Sicilian Richter Rauzer Variation

Kurt Richter developed this variation in the mid-1950s. Black opens the knight to c6 and continues the position. Most of the positions convert into Scheveningen variation. In Classical Sicilian, Black takes control of e5 with 2…d6 and develops both knights, keeping the possibilities of …g6 or …e5, depending on what White does.

The Richter-Rauzer is a way for White to meet the Classical Sicilian, in which White makes both …g6 and …e5 less desirable.


  • It helps the player avoid transposing to a Dragon or allowing …e5
  • The game develops rapidly
  • It helps in preparing to castle queenside with a sharp game


  • Black can sometimes take advantage of the position of the bishop on g5
  • It is reasonably theoretical with few practical implications

Scheveningen Variation

Sicilian Scheveningen Variation

This variation got attention during the 1923 chess tournament in Scheveningen, located in the Netherlands. During the tournament, several players played the variation several times, including Euwe playing it against Maróczy.

Most of the players prepare for Najdorf and Scheveningen simultaneously. The leading reason players play Najdorf is to avoid the Keres attack. The Keres Attack puts Black into a somewhat defensive and potentially dangerous position.

For this reason, many advocates of this defense tend to play the Najdorf Variation move order and then play 6…e6, transposing into the Scheveningen.

Apart from these lines, there are various lines from the black side, which are also considered.

These include:

  • Kan variation
  • Kan paulsen variation
  • Pelikan variation
  • Sveshnikov variation

From these lines, it is apparent that White also needs extensive work on Sicilian defense and can’t take this line for granted. White’s play should be accurate and attacking to counter Sicilian defense.

You will also need a strong command over the opening as well as in the middle game. Various lines are 20 to 30 moves long. A single mistake in Sicilian defense can collapse your position badly.

From White’s perspective, there are various sidelines that one can prepare. But the problem with sidelines is that if your opponent knows how to play, they will attain immediate equality in the opening, matching moves.

Another option is to prepare the mainline deeply and play. There are various setups available in Sicilian defense from the White’s side. You can choose according to your style of play.

Now let’s analyze some of the significant sidelines in Sicilian defense from the white side to surprise your opponent. Many grandmasters tend to avoid main lines and go for sidelines to avoid preparation and theory.

Alapin Variation

Alapin Variation

In this variation, white plays 2nd move c3 and tries to keep pressure in the center. We can see the isolated queen pawn structure many times in this variation. GM Sergey Tiviakev played this variation often.

Rossolimo Variation

Rossolimo Variation

The moves of this variation are 1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5. This variation is becoming a primary weapon of many top grandmasters. Almost all top players played this variation at least once.

Moscow Variation

Moscow Variation

In this variation, white tries to exchange Black’s black bishop and then capture the center with pawns. This variation has also become very popular in the last ten years.

Smith-Morra Gambit

Smith-Morra Gambit

White gives one pawn to get better development. This variation is not very popular. But you can prepare this for rapid and blitz games to surprise your opponents.

Strategies to Beat the Sicilian Defense

Strong Opening Repertoire – Players should build a strong opening repertoire. Players must seek help from their coaches, read books, and watch some fantastic videos and online lessons on the topic. It will take time to build your repertoire. It’s better to start with only one line and prepare thoroughly and then start another variation.

Play Games – The Internet makes it very easy to prepare and play with players from anywhere in the world. Once you prepare any variation, try to play games on that opening. I want to stress one thing, play with real players instead of computers. Computers don’t have a brain; they don’t have emotions, and the human element is missing.

Prepare Various Variations and Sidelines – Don’t stick to just one variation. Always prepare multiple variations in the same opening. This will also increase your understanding level. Sidelines can be your primary weapon in rapid and blitz games because your opponents will be unprepared for the sidelines.

Watch Top Players’ Games – Generally, all top players have a coach and a team of seconds. Their team is always busy finding new opening trends. To take benefit of this, you need to follow the latest games and trends.

How to prepare against Sicilian Defense?

To prepare against the Sicilian defense, you first have to start with the opening repertoire. It will take a minimum of 10-12 months to build a good opening repertoire. We have already seen critical main lines and sidelines in Sicilian defense.

The best way to prepare for any opening is to get a personal coach to help you work on the game. Because coaches have experience, and that can save your time a lot. Further, they provide you with a ready-opening repertoire.

If you want to prepare for Sicilian defense on your own, be prepared to put in a lot of hard work and time for self-study. There are a lot of books, courses, and articles from which you can learn openings.

Here are some of the best resources-

Top players and best games in Sicilian Defense

The Sicilian defense has a very long history since 1594 when Giuoco Piano ( Italian for Quiet Game) made its debut. Paul Morphy criticized this opening and refused to play. However, Sicilian defense became very popular in the mid-1950s when many top grandmasters and world champions played this opening.

Here’s the list of grandmasters who played Sicilian defense and popularised it:

  • Isaac Boleslavsky
  • Alexander Kotov
  • Miguel Najdorf
  • Reuben Fine
  • Bent Larsen
  • Ljubomir Ljubojević
  • Lev Polugaevsky
  • Leonid Stein
  • Mark Taimanov
  • Mikhail Tal
  • Bobby Fischer
  • Garry Kasparov
  • Kozul Zdenko
  • Maxime Vachier Lagrave

Best games in Sicilian Defense with white pieces


Which opening should you prepare first?

It would be best to prepare Najdorf Variation first because it is intense and one of the most played openings. In Najdorf, I would suggest you play according to your playing style. For aggressive players, the best variation is Bg5, and if you are a positional player, you can go for Classical Variation.

After completing Najdorf, prepare Dragon Variation and Schveshniko Variation. You can prepare some sidelines in Dragon Variation because the mainline is loaded with theory. A single mistake can ruin your game.

Finally, you can prepare all other lines such as Kan Paulsen, Scheveningen, Accelerated Dragon Opening, etc.

Should you avoid main lines against Sicilian?

Definitely Not!

You must know all the strategies on the main lines. If you want to become a top player, then you have to play the mainline. Sidelines can give you a temporary advantage, but the main lines will help you build your strong repertoire.

Sidelines are always helpful in rapid and blitz games. If your opponent doesn’t know the theory, then it will give you an immediate advantage.


From White’s perspective, you should always try to win in Sicilian defense. If you spend your time correctly practicing Sicilian defense, then in no time, you will play like a true champion. Don’t go for any sharp openings which have a lot of theoretical implications.

Though Sicilian defense is very popular, white’s probability of winning is more significant than Black. Having said that, new trends and novel strategies are still being discovered in Sicilian Defense.

It is this reason why, from Black’s perspective, Sicilian Defense is always tricky to play.

All our articles are reviewed and edited by GM Marian Petrov, a top level GM coach, theorist, mentor and and former Bulgarian champion, as well as winner of many open tournaments around the world.

Learn Chess for Free

helping you

Learn Chess

We are here for serious chess learners. Our mission is to promote the game of chess through a complete, easy-to-understand database of tutorials on literally every opening in Chess.