Sicilian Defense – A Complete Guide

by | Oct 18, 2021 | Complete Guides, Recent, Sicilian Defense | 0 comments

When it comes to powerful opening options for black, none is more played than the Sicilian Defense. Although it has ‘defense’ in the name, don’t be fooled–this opening gives the player plenty of chances to make aggressive moves that statistically give black the winning advantage.

The essence of the Sicilian Defense is for black to move to c5 when white opens with e4. From this asymmetrical opening, black is at an advantage to use one of the defense’s many variations and ultimately win. It’s a popular and strong opening for black that can be seen at all levels of chess.

In the rest of this article, I’ll cover this opening in detail, including how to play it step-by-step, some of the most popular variations of it, and some of its weaknesses and traps. I’ve also noted a few books and historical games that can lead you to a deeper understanding of this opener.

What Is the Sicilian Defense?

The Sicilian Defense is notated as 1. e4 c5 It’s considered the most popular and most successful opening response for black that creates an asymmetrical pawn structure. This imbalance positioning affords black with better odds of winning and control of the d4 square.

Principles and Theory

When it comes to openings in chess, there are a few consistent principles. Controlling the center is a common aim, and the person playing white will likely try to do this with their opening move.

The Sicilian Defense gives black a chance to create a counter-center with white’s opening move. This imbalance helps prevent white from dominating control of the center.

When white moves a pawn to e4, the symmetrical move for black would be to move to e5. However, the Sicilian Defense doesn’t take this approach. Its goal is to create an asymmetrical setup to play, giving black a better chance at keeping the center in control and winning as the game progresses.

It’s statistically the best opening option for black and can often be used by
GrandMasters in their games.

How to Play the Sicilian Defense

To play the Sicilian Defense, you’ll start by creating a counter-center to white’s opening move. If white makes its opening play by moving a pawn to e4, black will want to resist the urge to open with a pawn on e5. Instead, black opens with a pawn on c5. If a game starts with this set of moves (e4, c5), it has started with the Sicilian Defense.

After this set of opening moves, any number of lines and variations can be played. However, to better understand the essence of this defense, let’s explore a main line commonly seen in response to the Sicilian Defense.

Let’s say white moves its knight to f3. The typical Sicilian move here is to move a pawn to d6. When you make this move, notice that you’ll have created a little chain of pawns. Additionally, you’ll have created some space around your bishop for this piece to develop. 

Now, white is on the attack. Let’s say white moves a pawn to d4. Black moves in and takes this pawn. White will likely come in with the knight and take black’s pawn. Now, white has a pawn and a knight in the center and could easily move another pawn in the center as well. These three white pieces in a row would create a Maroczy Bind. This bind would be a powerful position for white, so it’s important to stop this bind before it’s created.

In order to do this, black moves the knight to f6. This position allows black to be in place to attack the white pawn in the center. This forces white to move its knight as opposed to its pawn, bringing the knight to c3.

Now it’s time for black to protect its king. At this moment, black should move a pawn to a6. This move will keep white’s knights away from b5, which would be a prime position to attack black’s king.

To see a demonstration of these moves, you can check out this Youtube video:


These moves make up the essential components of the Sicilian Defense. When you reach this point in the game, you can choose a variation that you believe will work best for you. We will explore the variations later on in this article.

Why Play the Sicilian Defense?

The Sicilian Defense is statistically your best option if you’re playing black. At the beginning of the game, white likely has the goal of occupying the board’s center. The Sicilian Defense gives black a way to move that will keep white on its toes and create an asymmetrical center that’s harder for white to control.

Another reason to play the Sicilian Defense is what it might provoke from the person playing white. If you’re to move your first pawn to c5, you’re in a position to take one of white’s pawns. When taking this pawn, you’ll be in line with white’s queen. This positioning might provoke white to move the queen out into the open, giving black an added advantage.

Another advantage of playing the Sicilian Defense is the learning opportunity it provides. The variations and lines are limitless, and every time you play this defense, you’ll likely learn something new.

Grandmasters have awe-inspiring knowledge and understanding of how this opening works and what variations to use. As novices advance in their skills, they will gain insights into the complexities of this opening as well. 

Main Line

The main line when it comes to the Sicilian Defense is the Open Sicilian. After the iconic white to e4 and black to c5, white’s knight then moves to f3 and black’s pawn to d6. White’s pawn moves to d4, and black takes this pawn. White’s knight then takes the black pawn on d4. Black’s knight moves to f6, and white’s knight moves to C3.

This set of moves is called the Open Sicilian because it creates an opening in the center of the board. From this position, the player will likely move on to one of the main variations. Let’s take a look at what the most common variations are. 

Best Lines / Popular Lines

When it comes to the Sicilian Defense, the best lines to play after the Open Sicilian are one of opening’s many variations. The Najdorf Variation is perhaps the most popular when it comes to the main variations, followed by the Dragon. The Classical and Scheveningen lines are less common today, but have enjoyed popularity in the past.


While there are countless variations when it comes to the Sicilian Defense, there are four main options we will explore in detail here today. They are the Najdorf variation, the Dragon variation, the Classical variation, and the Scheveningen variation.

All of these variations begin from the Open Sicilian position. Let’s take a look at what to do from the Open Sicilian to effectively play each of these variations.

The Najdorf Variation

This favorite variation of the Sicilian Defense is commonly seen in modern chess play. It was made famous by Bobby Fischer at the height of his career and is still well-loved by players today.

After the Open Sicilian is reached, black moves a pawn to a6. This key move sets up protection against white’s lurking bishop and knights. This variation will commonly lead to black placing a pawn on b5 or a bishop on b7. This puts pressure on the original white pawn on e4. It’s also common for black to leverage an attack on the queen’s side from this line.

The Dragon Variation

From the Open Sicilian, you’re directly ready to make the key move in the Dragon variation. This essential move is for black to move its pawn to g6. This move is important for this variation because it gives the bishop the room it needs to move and attack in the center. As it makes these moves, it will put added pressure around white’s queen.

This variation gives black a chance to be aggressive and make important progress in the game. However, it doesn’t come without a weakness. The signature move, black pawn to g6, can actually be an opportunity for white if the player is prepared and knows this variation.

To see this variation played out, you can check out this Youtube video here:

The Classical Variation

This variation is one of the oldest variations when it comes to the Sicilian defense. This variation has previously been seen at the world-class level but has dropped off in popularity in modern times. This variation is different from the others in that it chooses to develop the knights instead of the bishops.

The Scheveningen Variation

This is one of the less common variations you’ll see when it comes to the Sicilian Defense. For this variation, black will position two of its pawns strategically, on e6 and d6. This sets a solid defense against white who will be on the attack. 

Traps and Weaknesses

As with any line in chess, there are always traps and weaknesses to be found and exploited. The Sicilian Defense is no different. Let’s take a look at the top trap played in this opening.

Najdorf Trap

When playing the Najdorf line, black will move its knight to d7. A common response from white is to move the queen to f3. However, instead of making this move, white could move its bishop to c4. Black may be tempted to move a pawn to b5, moving perfectly into white’s trap. White’s bishop can move to e6 and take black’s pawn.

Black will likely recapture with a pawn, giving white the chance to capture once again using their knight. White is now in a position to attack black’s queen with the knight on e6. As the queen moves out of the line of fire, white can move its other knight to d5. From this position, black will be forced to defend the queen, and white will have the strategic upper hand as the game progresses.

To see this and other traps played out fully, you can check out this link on Youtube:



According to Chess World, the Sicilian Defense is the number one opening for black. When played, black has a 34% win rate and a 29% draw rate. These are the highest rates for black success when compared with other favorable openings.

When it comes to grandmasters, the Sicilian Defense is used 17% of the time. According to the Chess Informant database, 25% of all games recorded begin with this defense.

Famous Games and Popular Players

The Sicilian Defense is commonly seen with high-level chess players. These players may favor certain variations and have such a deep understanding of the lines that it inspires awe in the spectators.

Although this opening has gone through centuries of development and evolution, there are a few names in modern chess that are closely associated with it. Bobby Fischer and Garry Kasparov are two of the best-known chess players who helped popularize the Sicilian Defense. Both of these players consistently used the Sicilian and its variations throughout their careers, showing it at the aggressive, surprising way to play that it is.

Fischer became an expert in the Najdorf variation, while Kasparov became a published expert on how to play the Classical and Scheveningen Variation. Kasparov played many iconic games with the Sicilian beginning in the 1970s all the way through the 2000s. Fischer’s most famous games with this defense were in the 1950s and 60s.


If you’re looking for a good read on the Sicilian Defense and its wide range of variations and lines, you have plenty of options to choose from. This opening is one of the most studied in chess, and much has been written on the topic. We have compiled a few top reads here to get you started.

1. Starting Out: The Sicilian

This book, available on Amazon, is a great option for those just getting started studying this chess opening. This book dives deep into the theory and principles behind the Sicilian as well as its most common variations. The pages are full of tips, lessons, and warnings, and it’s a very useful guide for those looking to explore this opening with expert guidance. 

Like any good chess book, it also explores what the other side might do in response to help you better understand the possible reactions from the person playing white. It’s written by a chess grandmaster, so you’re in good hands as John Emms explains this opening to you.

2. Mastering the Sicilian Defense

This classic guide by international master Danny Kopec is a great guide for those looking to deeply understand the most useful Sicilian moves and variations. The book is written from the black’s point of view and will go in-depth into the lines that Kopec deems the most essential.

The book’s goal is to give the person playing black a solid base of knowledge when it comes to playing the Sicilian. Studying this book and following its exercises will help the player develop their understanding of the opening and the best moves to make in each scenario. It will also explore some of the lesser-played variations, giving players a chance to surprise their opponents.

3. Playing 1.e4: Sicilian Main Lines

This book in the Grandmaster Series is great for advanced players looking for a quality professional guide on playing the Sicilian Defense. Here, Grandmaster John Shaw guides you through the main lines with his insights, tips, and moves that will help you surprise your opponents– even the ones superficially familiar with this opening.

This book gives you clear moves accompanied by insightful analysis. It’s one of the more up-to-date options when it comes to Sicilian books. Each chapter is dedicated to one of the main variations so you can focus your studies on the lines that interest you the most.


1. Is the Sicilian Defense Good for Beginners?

The Sicilian Defense is good for beginners and can be seen across all levels of chess. It’s used by grandmasters and enthusiastic novices. Because there are so many lines, variations, and options when it comes to playing the Sicilian, different level players can use it to different extremes.

Beginners may struggle to know the range of possible variations and lines, but they will likely learn something each time they play this opening.

2. Why Is the Sicilian Defense Called So?

The Sicilian Defense has been called so since it was translated into English in the 1800s as such by Jacob Henry Sarratt, and the name stuck. The story of the opening begins back in the 16th century in Italy, as manuscripts and notes from that time call this opening the Sicilian Game.

3. What Do You Do After This Opening?

After the white pawn goes to e4 and the black pawn moves to c5, the options begin. Usually, players will continue to the Open Sicilian, as we explored above. From here, they may choose one of the main variations to continue their game.

4. Which Is the Best Variation for the Sicilian Defense?

The best variation for the Sicilian Defense is the Open Sicilian, since it gives you the option to pursue a range of other variations. From here, you can move into popular and effective variations like the Najdorf or the Dragon.

Final Thoughts

Few openings in chess are as studied or as played as much as the Sicilian Defense. Due to its many variations and complexities, it’s an opening that will grow with you as a player. As you advance in your game, you’ll come to understand more and more about this opening. The better you can understand it and play it, the more rewarding it will become.